HomeMajor Colored StonesRubies and SapphiresIntroduction and History to Rubies

THE ancient Hindus were so enchanted by the colour of rubies they considered them to be the Rajnapura or ‘King Of Gems’. The beauty, rarity and historical mystique of rubies is undeniable. Living and working in Chanthaburi, Thailand, a town where some 80% of the world’s rubies pass through in their distribution cycle, I quite literally eat, sleep and breathe with these gems. 



The earliest record of the mining of rubies goes back to more than 2,500 years ago in Sri Lanka. Historically, many believe that mystical powers lie within this intensely coloured red gemstone. When inserted beneath the skin, ancient Burmese believed that the gem generates a mystical force which protects the wearer from accidents and attack. 

Above all other gemstones, including diamonds, rubies command the greatest per carat prices. The 15.97ct faceted Mogok Ruby that sold at Sotheby’s in New York in October 1988, for example, fetched a staggering USD3,630,000 or $227,301 per carat.

Understanding where the value lies in rubies is essential to making a rewarding purchase. Not all rubies are the same and as with all gemstones, quality equals value. Consequently, there are several attributes to consider when selecting rubies.

Colour Is The Single Most Important Factor
Identical in every attribute to sapphires, except for their scarlet red colour hues, the term ‘ruby’ can only be applied to the red varieties of the mineral known as corundum, second only to diamond in hardness. Appropriately, the name ruby is derived from the Latin word for red, ruber. 
As its name implies, the colour is the single most important factor in determining a ruby’s value. The ideal ruby colour displays an intensity and richness of bright crimson hues that are neither too dark nor too light. Rubies that appear dark and garnet-like in appearance are less favoured, as are those that are lightish in colour and border on pink. Furthermore, a quality ruby displays a red fluorescence that greatly enhances the intensity of the red colour and the value of the gem.

Carat Weight Greatly Affects Price
Large rubies of high quality are the rarest and most highly prized of all gemstones in the world. They are rarer than diamonds or sapphires of an equal quality and size. You may consider any high quality piece of above 5cts to be world-class. As the weight of a ruby increases, so does its per carat price. Large rubies are many many times rarer than smaller ones, so per carat prices increase disproportionately. One 3ct ruby is worth much more than three 1ct rubies of the same quality. Ruby prices also increase in steps when in excess of certain significant weights. For example, a 2.01ct ruby has a higher price tag than a 1.99ct ruby, despite a negligible difference in actual size. With rubies, as in all gemstones, prices can be said to suffer a ‘Non Linear Scale Of Increments’.

Freedom From Inclusions
Ideally, a ruby should allow the free transmission of light throughout the body of the gem without any hindrance. Quite literally, the ideal ruby is ‘crystal clean’. However, the reality is that the clarity found in rubies tends to be less clean than in sapphires or many other gemstones. This can actually aid in a ruby’s beauty and is known as jardin or the garden.

Shape & Cut
Faceted rubies (those with geometrically shaped, flat polished faces) are found in a variety of shapes and styles. While ovals and cushion cuts are most commonly seen, other shapes such as emerald cuts and hearts are not uncommon. 
A slight premium is levied on round cut rubies due to the proportionally higher loss of expensive rough crystal during cutting. While small discounts are often applied to the value of both pear and marquise cuts, rubies that are overly deep or shallow should generally be avoided.
It could be argued that cabochons are the most common cut for this gemstone variety. Used for star rubies and rubies that do not possess enough clarity for faceting, quality cabochons are semi-transparent, smooth un-cracked domes that exhibit good symmetry. 

Classical Sources
The most classic source of rubies is the Mogok Stone Tract in Upper Burma. Burmese rubies are traditionally considered the finest and they command premiums over rubies from all other sources. Fine rubies have also been found in Afghanistan, Cambodia, Kenya, Madagascar, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Yunnan and Vietnam.
Ruby the stone of love and passion is a highly prized gemstone. It is truly a majestic stone with blazing true red color attracting royalty and commoners all through the history. It is a highly durable stone second in hardness and beauty only to diamond. The word Ruby comes from the Latin "ruber," meaning red. This beautiful gemstone is usually either translucent or transparent belonging to the Corundum group. It has medium to dark tones of red to purple-red in color. Rubies are graded according their carat, clarity and color .They are also graded according to their area of mining. The most stunning specimens are said to be mined from Burma, but good quality rubies are also found in India, Sri Lanka, Australia, Kenya, Tanzania, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the United States though in limited number. 
Use Of Heat
Many rubies seen in today’s markets have been subjected to high temperatures. An age-old practice that is said to have originated in Sri Lanka, records demonstrate that rubies and sapphires have been heated for nearly 2,000 years. 
Rubies are heated to improve clarity and intensify colour. Without this practice, we would see far fewer rubies on the market today and prices would have been exorbitant. For some people, rubies that have not been heat-treated are sometimes more valuable. For other people, heating is a godsend, as it makes expensive gems far more affordable.
The proportion of unheated rubies on the market is very small – less than 0.5%. Although no more beautiful, this level of rarity makes them highly collectable and prices are set at a premium. Sometimes, unheated rubies can fetch over double the price paid for heated rubies. However, in lower qualities and smaller sizes under three quarters of a carat, heat-treated gems sell for roughly the same as untreated gems of the same quality. 

Star Rubies
Star rubies have long been coveted for their beautiful and mysterious optical effects. Glance at a star ruby and you will see four or six rayed stars silently gliding across the gemstone’s surface.

This intriguing optical phenomenon is unique to the world of gemstones. Technically known as the ‘Asteric Effect’, it is caused by sets of parallel needle-like inclusions of foreign minerals. Sometimes known as ‘silk’, the needles are oriented in all or some of the directions of the crystal structure. These needles are responsible for reflecting intersecting bands of light back to the eye.

Quality star rubies display well-defined stars in the centre of the cabochon. The celestial arms of the star should be unbroken and well contrasted against an intense crimson red body colour.

Long one of mankind’s most beloved treasures, rubies truly are a gift from nature. Part of the ‘Big Four’ alongside diamond, sapphire and emerald, ruby remains a perennial favourite of gemstone lovers everywhere.

Ruby is a red gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide) in which the colour is caused mainly by chromium. Its name originates from ruber or rubrum, Latin for red.  The most expensive ruby colour is a deep, pure, vivid red. Stones a little pinkish, purplish, or orangey red are also considered rubies, but gem and jewellery professionals make careful distinctions between ruby and pink, purple, or orange sapphire. (Ruby and sapphire are both corundum varieties.)

Generally, the difference depends on a combination of hue, tone, and saturation, but market culture and geography also make a difference. Gems that would be considered pink or purple sapphire in the US may be classified and sold as rubies in some Asian countries.

Natural rubies are exceptionally rare, though artificial ones (sometimes called created ruby) can be manufactured by the Verneuil process relatively inexpensively. Other varieties of gem-quality corundum are called sapphires.
The king of gems. In sizes over 10 carats, Burmese stones of the  highest quality are, per carat, the most  costly of all gems. Ruby gemstones are valued according to several characteristics including size, colour, clarity and cut. All natural rubies have imperfections in them, including colour impurities and inclusions. On the other hand, artificial rubies may have no imperfections. The fewer the number and the less obvious the imperfections, the more valuable the ruby is—unless there are no imperfections (i.e., a "perfect" ruby), in which case it is suspected of being artificially made and its status as a priceless gem is therefore not completely assured. Some manufactured rubies have dopants added to them(Ramaura) so that they can be identified as artificial, but most require gemmological testing to determine their origin.

Birthstone for July. Colour is of principle importance in pricing. "Burma" rubies are renowned for an intense, medium, pure to slightly purplish red colour, whether from Burma or not. The ill-defined adjective "pigeon blood" has been used to describe this colour, though its precise meaning today is so obscure that the term is virtually meaningless. The best, true Burma rubies show a red, warm glow in direct sunlight, a consequence of strong u.v. fluorescence peculiar to these stones that are coloured by Cr without any Fe present.  "Thai" or "Siam" rubies are commonly darker, with a more brownish- or purplish-red colour (Fe present), and comprise most of the stones on the market today.  Some or all of these darker overtones are today commonly removed by heat treatment.  "Ceylon" ruby was once a common term for light red to pinkish ruby that in most cases could more properly be referred to as pink sapphire.  It should be emphasized these names today have very little to no meaning with regard to a rubies origin (they probably never did, given the inconsistencies of their use and the broad range of colours produced at all localities) because of the now widespread use of colour enhancement techniques.

The term "Balas Ruby" is an old misnomer that was once used for red spinel, and is not ruby at all.

Prior to the mid 1960's, much of the ruby sold in America originated from Burma. Discerning jewels and gemologists considered Thai rubies to be greatly inferior to the lighter, purer red, Burma varieties; these stones were consequently worth considerably less. Production in Burma nearly ceased after socialists seized power in 1962, and today accounts for an extremely small portion of fine rubies that annually make it to market. Thai rubies have since become the norm (average consumers describe ruby as "dark red") and have experienced a tremendous price increase. The lighter, purer-red, Burmese varieties are still the most highly prized, but are rarely seen in jewelry stores today. The common notion that the best rubies are very dark red must be dispelled when purchasing fine gem ruby.

Sources

Rubies are mined in Africa, Asia, Australia, and Greenland. They are most often found in Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand, though they have also been found in the U.S. states of Montana and South Carolina. Sometimes spinels are found along with rubies in the same geological formations and are mistaken for the more valuable gem. However, fine red spinels may approach the average ruby in value.


Phenomena

Rubies occasionally show asterism when cut into a cabochon. When they show this, they are reffered to as "star rubies." They can sometimes be more valuable than normal rubies because asterism is rare.

The world's biggest ruby is the Rajaratna Ruby, which weighs 2,475 carats (495 g). Because the Rajaranta shows asterism, it is also the largest star ruby. The world's biggest double-star ruby (with a 12-pointed star) is the Neelanjali Ruby, weighing 1,370 carats (274 g). Both rubies currently belong to G. Vidyaraj from Bangalore, India.


Trivia, Culture and historical/mythical usage

According to Rebbenu Bachya, the word odem in the verse Exodus 28:17 means "ruby"; it was the stone on the Ephod representing the tribe of Reuben. Modern Hebrew has taken this meaning.

Ruby is the birthstone associated with July.

A synthetic ruby crystal was used to create the first laser.


Ruby currently holds the record price per carat among coloured stones. Less than a year after its previous record-setting ruby sale, Christie’s has almost doubled the top price-per-carat paid for a ruby. According to Bloomberg, on February 15 “Laurence Graff, a London jeweler, paid a record $425,000 a carat for a ruby in the Swiss resort of St. Moritz..., smashing the previous record of $275,000 and indicating demand for precious stones is still increasing.”

The catalog describes the ring as a “cushion-cut ruby weighing 8.62 carats to the rectangular-shaped diamond bombé mount, mounted in 18k gold, ring size 3-1/4; Signed Bulgari.” Apparently the gemstone is remarkable for its combination of attributes: “pigeon’s blood” red colour, superb transparency and, of course, the absence of any signs of heat treatment.

Those with a memory for such things will recall that Graff previously acquired another record-breaker, the Mogok Ruby (aka Alan Caplan’s Ruby), which held the price-per-carat record until last year’s Christie’s sale.



References:
Wikipedia
http://www.geo.utexas.edu/courses/347k/redesign/gem_notes/corundum/corundum_main.htm

RUBY - THE BIRTH STONE FOR JULY

The most costly gemstone - the Ruby, is one of the world's rarest stones and is the red variety of corundum (Aluminium oxide) with traces of chromium. Highly valued Ruby having a bluish tint is called pigeon-blood-red. Less costly ones have brownish or yellowish tint. The best quality ruby is obtained from Burma, while commercially important ones are from Indonesia. Indian rubies are not of high quality, but the Indian star rubies have a huge demand. .

TIPS FOR BUYING RUBIES

The four c's (color, cut, clarity, and carat) are still in effect for buying rubies. Cut is of course your choice. Rubies often are cut as ovals or cushion-cuts, but many others are available. Clarity is less strict with rubies than stone such as diamonds. All rubies are expected to have inclusions of some find. If you find a ruby that is flawless, most likely it is not a ruby. Ask to look at the ruby through a loupe before buying. Make sure the inclusions are not enough to threaten the strength of the stone. Fractures that come to the surface of the stone could be a risk. If inclusions are so numerous that the stone is cloudy or opaque you may want to avoid the stone. Color is one of the most important factors with ruby. The richer and deeper the color the more valuable it is. Of course as with cut the final choice is your personal preference. Be sure that you know if the gem is natural or synthetic and also if it has been treated. This will make a difference in the price of the piece.

Once you have decided to purchase the magnificent gem - Ruby, the affordable price range should be fixed. First of all, you should have a brief idea of imitation, synthetic and natural gems. While selecting a gem from a jewelry shop give importance to color, size, cut, carat, clarity, hardness and brilliance including the material used in jewelry.

Gather all the information about the ruby you like most. They come in a wide range of tones from Pigeon-Blood red to Crimson Red. Red ones without the tint of purple are the best. Even if there is an overtone of orange or pink, it should be saturated enough to appear as red. A ruby should be eye clean i.e., without any visible inclusions. Ruby without inclusions are the rarest. Most rubies have inclusions which are not visible to naked eye. Such inclusions do not reduce the value as long as there is brilliance. High value rubies are those with intense medium red . Imitation rubies are often designated as synthetic rubies by the sellers.

This malpractice should be properly taken into consideration while selecting the rubies. There is a distinction between imitation and synthetic rubies. Red glass can be converted into ruby which is truly an imitation. Imitation rubies do not have the composition, structure, refractive index, and brilliance as original or synthetic rubies. The synthetic rubies on the other hand have the same chemical composition, structure, refractive index and brilliance as the original rubies. In fact some of the synthetic ones are more beautiful and costlier than the original rubies. Many gems are sold in the market using misleading terms.

Red Garnet is sold in the market as Arizona rubies or Cape rubies. Garnet or Rose Quartz is sold in the market as American ruby. You have to be on guard about such misleading terms.. To determine the tint of the ruby, view the ruby under both, the daylight and the incandescent light. It is interesting to note that the appearance of ruby will be affected by weather, cloudy sky, clear sky and the like. During Sunset or Sunrise when the light is dim, a light colored ruby looks attractive. In the same way the dark colored ones may look magnificent in bright light. The same ruby shows different tint at different places due to intensity of light and amount of blue spectrum.

If you find it hard to decide, select the ruby with a certificate from a recognized gem testing lab. The cut of the stone is the next factor to be looked into. Scratchless symmetrically cut ruby is the ideal one. Gem cutters (lapidaries) cut stone into faceted gems; the angle between the top set and the bottom set is fixed depending on the refractive index. The aim is to get most of the light entering the top facet to be reflected by the bottom facet to provide brilliance. A properly cut ruby is set to have ideal cut. Such rubies appear to have an inner glow . So, when viewing a ruby, if dark patches are found at the center or if the ruby shows a washed out appearance it is better to leave it out because the cut may not be perfect..

The most common cuts are oval, cushion or round. Heart cut and Emerald cut rubies are also available but they are not common. In the case of a star ruby, the quality is judged by the sharpness of star, symmetrical rays and the color of the body. A ruby that is filled with the needle-like rutile (silk) inclusions is called a star ruby. Such a ruby may be cut in a 'domed' shape producing six - legged star. The star effect is caused by the silk inclusions. High quality star rubies come from India and Srilanka. It is essential that you obtain all the details of a gem from the seller. Most of the stones sold now-a-days have been subjected to low heat treatment to increase the color. Such treatment does not affect the quality of the stones or their value It is the duty of the seller to disclose anything connected with treatment of the gems. Heat treatment of the gem in the presence of a flux cures fractures and openings. Oiling or staining is another treatment.

These treatments affect the stability and hence the value of the stone. It is better to obtain a CGI certificate which ensures that the color, size and the treatments if any, are according to the standard. Rubies in sizes more than one carat are considered ideal. Those with more than three carats are hard to find. Untreated fine quality rubies above 5 carats belong to superior class. If a seller mixes different rubies and pile them together, each draws color from the other. Under such a circumstance spread them and view them after placing on a white paper so that color of one will not affect that of the other. Background color will also affect the color of the stone. Many sellers place the ruby on a yellow background so that low demand purple-red stone may appear to be more reddish.

It is better to place the stone on a white background for proper identification of color. Finally you have to go through the certificate issued by the approved gemologist. Such a certificate will reveal the following:

1) how good the polish is

2) how good the symmetry is

3) the exact location of the inclusions and the blemishes

4) the ultimate result of the test on the basis of 14 parameters apart from the four C's(cut, color, clarity, and carat)

Some certification companies even offer inscriptions on the stone by means of laser micro-inscription The price of a gem is directly related to quality, weight and rarity. Market factors too can have as much, or even greater, influence on prices as does quality. We can conclude that the prices are influenced by quality, weight and market factors. In fact the main factor can be attributed to rarity.

Real rubies produced by Mother Nature are extremely rare and very expensive. Therefore, artificially red colored rubies are created by man made methods that are relatively quite cheap. Sometimes, few clever buyers sell these cheap stones at the price of the original gemstone. In order to avoid all future surprises buyers should ensure the credibility of the dealers. The seller must inform the buyers about the gemstone treatments and origin clearly. He/she should also give the certificate of authenticity along with the gem at the time of purchase to the buyer. This article is written with the intension to provide the gemstone lovers with all possible facts and information about the valuable red colored precious gem. This content would acquaint the buyers with the essential know-how about this remarkable gemstone.

Colour - It is an extremely important characteristic. Being the member of mineral corundum (aluminum oxide) family, this exquisite gemstone owes its pure red colour to chromium element present in the chemical composition. Brightness and intensity of red colour increases with the increase of chromium. True and genuine gem possess intense saturated pure red colour with no tinge of either brown or blue. The glow of red colour is similar to that of burning coal. This amazing gemstone holds its beautiful colour in all light variations.

It is found in all shades of red however deep red colour is the preferred choice. The distribution of colour is mostly uneven that might be stripes or spots, supposed as pigeon's blood, clear red with a trace of blue. The basic red colour mostly also comprises overtones of other colours. Colour variations are different in each single stone that is no two stones have similar overtones. Few commonly seen overtones are red with yellowish to orange tones or blue to purple tones. All these colour variations complements the main colour and gives amiable look to the gemstone.

Clarity - Second important characteristic is the transparency. It is the known fact that inclusions are always unwanted but with this gemstone it is different!! Certainly it is undesirable to have inclusions however these act as the certificate for the genuineness of the gem. All original rubies would consist of flaws. Chromium is liable for imperfections within the structure of the gemstone. The colour increases in direct proportion with the amount of chromium in the chemical composition and so is the clarity. The biggest difference lies; colour is positive trait while clarity becomes negative. Chromium results in large number of fractures and infinitesimal indiscretion inside the crystals. This is the reason why this marvelous gemstone always consists lots of defects. Ruby without any inclusion is miracle of the nature and thus it is priced as high as sky.

Cut - Beauty of the stone lies in the hands of the cutter. The final look is dependent on the cut being given to the gem. With the perfect cut, the stone could appear bigger in size in spite of being less in weight. It is often offered mixed cut, that is by and large oval, but could be round or any other shape like square, rectangle etc. Ruby beads or cabochons are also extensively seen in the jewelry market.

Carat Weight - It is found mostly in small sizes and less carat weight. Gemstones beyond 3 carat in weight are exceptionally rare and scarce in nature. This captivating gem is priced very high per carat and when it is more than 3 ctw then the price per carat weight gets doubled making it enormously pricey.

Price - At present this entrancing gemstone fetches maximum price than all other gemstones even the price paid for diamonds. The reasons are many like rarity, scarcity and exceptional features etc. Overall it is the expensive gem and further the price is determined on the basis of origin, colour, clarity and carat weight. Stones from Myanmar are the most sought after and treated as luxury stones. Then comes Thailand and Sri Lanka followed by other parts of the world. Pure intense red colour, minimum flaws and high carat weight are the pinnacle points in terms of price determinant. Financial value of the gem increases with the increase in these points. Original gems possessing all the summit points at the auctions outdo every other thing.

Few high quality gemstones exhibit unique phenomena of six-point star pattern, called asterism. It is caused due to fine rutilum needles present in structure along the crystal facets. When light is reflected from these needles the stones displays the star pattern. Such gems are over and over again fashioned into even cabochon cuts to best flaunt the phenomena. Further, when seen under a complimentary light source the star gives the impression of moving from one corner to the other corner of the stone with the change in the lighting angle. These gems are called as 'Star Rubies'. It is rare in nature and very expensive. These gems must show varied rays and the star should be visible in the center of the stone. Price is determined in the order of - beauty, attractive colour and last the transparency.

Source - Myanmar has been the prime source of preeminent ruby for many years. Mines at Mogok are the oldest mines for this gemstone. The special feature of strong fluorescence is exhibited when exposed to sunlight by the stones procured from this country. Slight pink reddish colored gems are also obtained from the renowned mines. Thailand is the second largest producer of fine quality gems consisting bright red colour. Few Thai gems produce phenomenon of extinction that is black reflections. Sri Lanka comes next in the list. Rubies acquired are fine-looking and habitually seizes pinkish or pastel tint.

This red beauty is procured from many other parts of the world for example Afghanistan, Pakistan, Australia, Pamir Mountains of the Commonwealth of Independent States, few states of United States and Greenland. African and some more Asian countries also contribute some amount of this precious gem to the world gemstone market. Gemstones with minimum or negligible clarity are found in Karnataka and Orissa state of India. 
Enhancements - Enhancement is common for this divine gemstone. It is treated to enhance the colour and improve the clarity. Man-made dyes are used to augment the colour while surface fractures are hidden through coatings. An ordinary coating does not last for long. Thermal enhancement is considered constant and everlasting. Under this process, the chemical like sodium tetraborate powder is melted under very high temperature and coated on the surface of the stone. The liquid chemical enters the fractures and covers it up. After sometime, the chemical solidifies as an amorphous solid and hides all the flaws. The international gem and jeweler trade acknowledges this treatment.

Imitations - Gemstone markets are flooded with imitations of this pretty gem. The synthetic stones look exactly identical to the original stones that it is almost impossible to spot the real gemstone. However one very simple tip is, natural rubies possess imperfections within it while the fake stones are created as perfect stones without any defects. Apart from this tip, either gemological testing or truthfulness of the seller could depict the originality of the gemstone. Black Ruby, Timur Ruby and many more such trade names are the faulty names created by the swindle dealers to mislead the buyers with poor quality red spinels or garnets at the high price of original rubies. Therefore, buyers should confirm about the reputation and reliability of the gemstone dealer. Only after 100% satisfaction the final purchase should be made in order to avoid upcoming bombshells.

Use - This fabulous gem is widely used for making charismatic jewelries in every corner of the globe. All the ornaments holding ruby are made with 14K or 18K yellow gold, white gold and platinum. Sterling silver can also be used but for such classy high priced gemstone it is seldom used moreover, it is not advisable. The stone used is less than three carat in weight. It is very well paired with diamonds to create breath taking rings, pendent, earrings and bracelets. In pairing, ruby is large in size or in the leading position while diamonds are placed in a way to emphasize the beauty of main stone.

Today, the jewelry designers' craft attractive earrings variety like stud earrings, hoop earrings and drop earrings. Stud earrings comprise of single large size stone to give royal look. Drop earrings embrace small stones less than two-carat weight as this variety offers sophisticated glance. Pendent and necklace are also available in eye-catching designs to harmonize the neck of the female. At present rings with ruby are embraced by females all over the world especially modern brides. Rings with ornately hued rubies along with diamonds in platinum or white gold are the prime liking for the wedding, anniversary and engagement rings as it articulates a woman's only one of its kind persona.

After rings it is bracelets in the selection to complement the delicacy of women's wrist. Same as rings it also includes unrivaled pairing of this gorgeous gem with diamonds. At the time of purchase the buyers should look for the right width of the bracelet. The gap between the bracelet and wrist must ideally be one finger width. It should not be too long else it would seize the attire and lay strain on the hinge joints and if too short then it would be uncomfortable and injure links and joints.

Precautions - It is red variety of the corundum mineral; one of the hardest minerals found on the earth crust therefore, it is tough and durable gemstone. It rates 9 Mohs on the scale of mineral hardness. The hardness rate specifies that this astonishing gemstone is ideal for daily wear jewelry and can easily withstand all the odds like sudden temperature changes, ultrasonic home cleaner and so on. Unquestionably it is a sturdy gemstone but at the same time it is a valuable asset for the lifetime. It would be treasure in the time to come therefore all general gemstone precautions and care should be put into practice. The jewelries holding this beautiful gem must be protected from hard blows and hits. In order to sustain the natural glow of the stone avoid wearing it while working with household cleaning agents and harsh chemicals etc. Most important, always protect your ruby or its jewelry from theft and damage. With these small steps one could retain the priceless gemstone longer than the expected lifetime.

Beliefs - Red colour of this splendid stone symbolizes ardent and rampant love between two people. It is also associated with fire and blood that refers to warmness and liveliness in life. It is believed to stave off bad dreams when kept under the pillow. It should be worn in left hand to boost its power of protection. It helps the wearer in finding true friendship and love. It also lends a hand to the wearer in overcoming negative traits such as apprehension, depression and anxiety. It proffers confidence and zeal towards life and assists in attaining opulence and authority. 
As it is allied with blood it is thought to enhance the blood circulations and heal the pain from related illness. It abets in purification of blood through sanitization and removal of infection or germs. It is even believed to reinforce neurological tissues around the heart. Astrologers recommend politicians and people involved in administrative work to wear this gem in left hand. Females who have miscarriages are suggested to wear this extraordinary gemstone ring to avoid such unfortunate misshapenness in future. All these effects could be experienced only when the wearer wears the original ruby. The ideal weight and size of the stone varies from person to person. It is determined on the basis of height and weight of the wearer.

Red colour of this fascinating gemstone symbolizes love, warmth and passion. It truly deserves to be well thought-out as king of gemstone as it acquires all it takes for the same such as influential appearance, radiant colour, outstanding hardness and an irresistible brilliance. Hence to own the king, be prepared to spend like a king!

 

Ruby: Mogok Origin

“At a carat there is a price. At a carat and one half that price doubles. At two carats the price triples…at six carats there is no price.”

Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, 1688

In 2005 a world record price for ruby was set when a private client from Asia paid the fabulous price of $2.2 million or $274,6

56 per carat for an 8.01 carat oval ge

m. This bested the previous record of $228,252/ct. set back in 1988 with a 15.97-ct. gemstone. In February 15, 2006Christies St. Moritz shattered that record selling a 8.65 carat cushion shaped ruby to a dealer for the final hammer price of $3.6 million or $425,000 per carat, nearly double the record set just one year before.

What makes Burma ruby so special is a normally invisible quality of ultraviolet fluorescence, rubies from locations in Thailand, which was the ruby standard bearer in the years between the closing of

Burma in 1962 and the discovery of the new Burma ruby deposits at Mong Hsu in the early 90s, have concentrations of iron that quench the gem’s natural fluorescence. In Burma type ruby, found at geologically simila

r locations in Burma (Mogok) (Namya), Vietnam, Pakistan and Afghanistan, some ultraviolet emissions fall into the visible red (at 692.8 and 694.2 nm). The red body color is supercharged by red fluorescence. Vietnamese gems are particularly strong in this quality.

Some dealers are beginning to discriminate between g

ems produced in the Mogok Valley and those from other sources. It is sometimes possible, by inclusion study to separate Mogok stones from other Burma-type rubies from Pakistan, Afghanistan and other parts of Burma (Namya and Mong Hsu). Taking the cue from Emerald, ruby from the original source are referred to as old mine.

 

Chemistry and Crystallography 

Chemical Composition

Aluminum oxide with chromium and the chemical formula is Al2O3,Cr.

Colours

All shades of red with hue of blue, brown, yellow and orange.

Hardness

9.0 Mohs

Refractive Index

1.762-1.778

Specific Gravity

3.96 to 4.01

Luster

Vitreous

Solid State

Transparent to Opaque

Crystal System

Trigonal

Dispersion

0.018

Cleavage

None

Fractures

Uneven or conchoidal

Pleochroism

Strong

Enhancement

Mostly enhanced

Source

Myanmar, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Australia, USA, India, Nepal and other African countries.

Precautions

All general gemstone precautions and care.

 

Chemical Composition  
Crystallographic System Trigonal
Cleavage None
Fracture Uneven or conchoidal
Fracture Lustre  
Habit  



Physical Characteristics

Hardness  
Toughness  
Specific Gravity  
Streak  



Optical Characteristics

Colour and Cause Red, caused by Chromium
Degree of Transparency  
Polish Lustre  
Refractive Index  
Birefringence  
Optic Character  
Pleochroism strong; orangy-red and purplish-red
Dispersion  
Phenomena  
X-Ray Fluorescence  
Transparency to X-Rays  
Ultraviolet Fluorescence  
Chelsea Filter Reaction  
Absorption Spectra  



Description

Appearance  
Variety and Trade Names  
Misnomers  
Typical Size Range  
Typical Cutting Styles Common cutting styles for ruby include mixed-cut ovals or antique cushions for transparent material, and cabochons or beads for translucent to opaque stones. Corundum has excellent toughness, and it's harder than any other natural gem except diamond. This makes it ideal for rings as well as many other types of jewellery.

Who are we?

The Geohavens name is an assurance of timeless beauty, distinct quality and uncompromising value. The Company spares no effort in sourcing from the farthest markets and the deepest mines in order to unearth the most attractive gems.

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